تبلیغات
ایمنی-بهداشت-محیط زیست - Personal Protective Equipment
قالب وبلاگ قالب وبلاگ

ایمنی-بهداشت-محیط زیست
 
خوش آمد گویی مارو پذیرا باشید

Health,Safety and Environment in Oil , Gas and Petrochemical Industries
 
نوشته شده در تاریخ سه شنبه 22 فروردین 1391 توسط مانی فتوت

Introduction

Hazards exist in every workplace in many different forms: sharp edges, falling objects, flying sparks, chemicals, noise and a myriad of other potentially dangerous situations. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that employers protect their employees from workplace hazards that can cause injury.

Controlling a hazard at its source is the best way to protect employees. Depending on the hazard or workplace conditions, OSHA recommends the use of engineering or work practice controls to manage or eliminate hazards to the greatest extent possible. For example, building a barrier between the hazard and the employees is an engineering control; changing the way in which employees perform their work is a work practice control.

When engineering, work practice and administrative controls are not feasible or do not provide sufficient protection, employers must provide personal protective equipment (PPE) to their employees and ensure its use. Personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as "PPE", is equipment worn to minimize exposure to a variety of hazards. Examples of PPE include such items as gloves, foot and eye protection, protective hearing devices (earplugs, muffs) hard hats, respirators and full body suits.

This guide will help both employers and employees do the following:
  • Understand the types of PPE.
  • Know the basics of conducting a "hazard assessment" of the workplace.
  • Select appropriate PPE for a variety of circumstances.
  • Understand what kind of training is needed in the proper use and care of PPE.
The information in this guide is general in nature and does not address all workplace hazards or PPE requirements. The information, methods and procedures in this guide are based on the OSHA requirements for PPE as set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 29 CFR 1910.132 (General requirements); 29 CFR 1910.133 (Eye and face protection); 29 CFR 1910.135 (Head protection); 29 CFR 1910.136 (Foot protection); 29 CFR 1910. 137 (Electrical protective equipment); 29 CFR 1910.138 (Hand protection); and regulations that cover the construction industry, at 29 CFR 1926.95 (Criteria for personal protective equipment); 29 CFR 1926.96 (Occupational foot protection); 29 CFR 1926.100 (Head protection); 29 CFR 1926.101 (Hearing protection); and 29 CFR 1926.102 (Eye and face protection); and for the maritime industry at 29 CFR 1915.152 (General requirements); 29 CFR 1915.153 (Eye and face protection); 29 CFR 1915.155 (Head protection); 29 CFR 1915.156 (Foot protection); and 29 CFR 1915.157 (Hand and body protection).

This guide does not address PPE requirements related to respiratory protection (29 CFR 1910.134) as this information is covered in detail in OSHA Publication 3079, "Respiratory Protection". There is a brief discussion of hearing protection in this publication but users should refer to OSHA Publication 3074, "Hearing Conservation" for more detailed information on the requirements to protect employees' hearing in the workplace.



The Requirement for PPE

To ensure the greatest possible protection for employees in the workplace, the cooperative efforts of both employers and employees will help in establishing and maintaining a safe and healthful work environment.

In general, employers are responsible for:
  • Performing a "hazard assessment" of the workplace to identify and control physical and health hazards.
  • Identifying and providing appropriate PPE for employees.
  • Training employees in the use and care of the PPE.
  • Maintaining PPE, including replacing worn or damaged PPE.
  • Periodically reviewing, updating and evaluating the effectiveness of the PPE program.
In general, employees should:
  • Properly wear PPE,
  • Attend training sessions on PPE,
  • Care for, clean and maintain PPE, and
  • Inform a supervisor of the need to repair or replace PPE.
Specific requirements for PPE are presented in many different OSHA standards, published in 29 CFR. Some standards require that employers provide PPE at no cost to the employee while others simply state that the employer must provide PPE. Appendix A at page 40 lists those standards that require the employer to provide PPE and those that require the employer to provide PPE at no cost to the employee.

Selecting PPE

All PPE clothing and equipment should be of safe design and construction, and should be maintained in a clean and reliable fashion. Employers should take the fit and comfort of PPE into consideration when selecting appropriate items for their workplace. PPE that fits well and is comfortable to wear will encourage employee use of PPE. Most protective devices are available in multiple sizes and care should be taken to select the proper size for each employee. If several different types of PPE are worn together, make sure they are compatible. If PPE does not fit properly, it can make the difference between being safely covered or dangerously exposed. It may not provide the level of protection desired and may discourage employee use.

OSHA requires that many categories of PPE meet or be equivalent to standards developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ANSI has been preparing safety standards since the 1920s, when the first safety standard was approved to protect the heads and eyes of industrial workers. Employers who need to provide PPE in the categories listed below must make certain that any new equipment procured meets the cited ANSI standard. Existing PPE stocks must meet the ANSI standard in effect at the time of its manufacture or provide protection equivalent to PPE manufactured to the ANSI criteria. Employers should inform employees who provide their own PPE of the employer's selection decisions and ensure that any employee-owned PPE used in the workplace conforms to the employer's criteria, based on the hazard assessment, OSHA requirements and ANSI standards. OSHA requires PPE to meet the following ANSI standards:
  • Eye and Face Protection: ANSI Z87.1-1989 (USA Standard for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection).
  • Head Protection: ANSI Z89.1-1986.
  • Foot Protection: ANSI Z41.1-1991.
For hand protection, there is no ANSI standard for gloves but OSHA recommends that selection be based upon the tasks to be performed and the performance and construction characteristics of the glove material. For protection against chemicals, glove selection must be based on the chemicals encountered, the chemical resistance and the physical properties of the glove material.


Training Employees in the Proper Use of PPE

Employers are required to train each employee who must use PPE. Employees must be trained to know at least the following:
  • When PPE is necessary.
  • What PPE is necessary.
  • How to properly put on, take off, adjust and wear the PPE.
  • The limitations of the PPE.
  • Proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of PPE.
Employers should make sure that each employee demonstrates an understanding of the PPE training as well as the ability to properly wear and use PPE before they are allowed to perform work requiring the use of the PPE. If an employer believes that a previously trained employee is not demonstrating the proper understanding and skill level in the use of PPE, that employee should receive retraining. Other situations that require additional or retraining of employees include the following circumstances: changes in the workplace or in the type of required PPE that make prior training obsolete.

The employer must document the training of each employee required to wear or use PPE by preparing a certification containing the name of each employee trained, the date of training and a clear identification of the subject of the certification.





طبقه بندی: مقالات خارجی، 
.: Weblog Themes By Pichak :.


تمامی حقوق این وبلاگ محفوظ است | طراحی : پیچک
قالب وبلاگقالب وبلاگ